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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a universal cellular electron transporter, coenzyme, and signaling molecule found in all cells in the body. NAD+ is naturally produced in the body from the amino acid tryptophan or from vitamin precursors (niacin). NAD+ is used to synthesize complex proteins and fats in the body.
Simply put, NAD+ is required to transfer energy from foods to cells in the body, where it can be used for growth and repair.
NAD+ levels are highest in the newborn, and they gradually decline throughout life. By the age of 50, NAD+ levels are approximately one-half of those of a young adult. For this reason, many researchers have studied NAD+ for its role in the aging process and as a contributor to aging-related diseases.
There is a lot of supporting evidence that NAD+ plays a key role in longevity and long-term cellular health.
NAD+ is required for over 500 chemical processes in the body. As NAD+ levels decrease with aging, bodily processes slow down. NAD+ levels can be restored by supplementing with NAD+ precursors from tryptophan or nicotinic acid in the diet. However, this may not be enough to replace the NAD+ lost, and depleting NAD+ through PARP activation is thought to contribute to age-related disease.
NAD+ supplementation can provide your cells with the building blocks they need to function optimally.
NAD+ is an essential component of the metabolic process in every cell in the body. It is a coenzyme that is mostly involved in anabolic processes, building complex proteins, and fats. NAD+ shuttles electrons between metabolic processes in cells.
As it is converted from NAD+ to NADH, NAD+ helps generate cellular energy needed for growth and repair. As NAD+ is converted to NADPH and back again, some is lost and needs to be replaced. More is lost with aging, which compromises cellular repair processes.
Besides its use in energy metabolism, NAD+ is a cofactor for NAD+ dependent enzymes such as Sirtuins (SIRTs) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP). Sirtuins and PARPs are both involved in the aging process. Over time, DNA, the genetic blueprint in every cell in the body, is damaged. DNA damage activates PARPs, which further deplete NAD+, a process that contributes to age-related disease.
Sirtuins (the longevity genes) are another class of molecules that use NAD+. These molecules protect DNA from damage. Sirtuins are dependent on NAD+ for energy, without energy they cannot function.
Another enzyme that consumes NAD+ is CD-38. CD-38 levels increase as we age, sometimes by two to three times, burning through more NAD+. Without NAD+, DNA and cellular damage accumulate, and cells age and die.
NAD+, an essential cofactor in hundreds of chemical reactions in the body, declines with age. Low NAD+ levels have been linked to diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and vision loss.
Cellular damage accumulates as NAD+ levels decline. Animal models have shown that replenishing NAD+ can have important anti-aging benefits.
NAD+ is involved in more than 500 chemical processes making its effects felt throughout the body.
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Yes. Although NAD+ was only available to be administered via an IV, NAD+ is now compounded by pharmacies for delivery via subcutaneous injection.
NAD+ is often prescribed at a starting dosage of 200-300mcg daily. However, you should consult with a physician before you determine if NAD+ is right for you.
Several clinical trials (36 completed) have assessed the effectiveness and safety of NAD+ use for treating symptoms associated with aging and aging-relation disease. No study reported severe side effects which support the safety of NAD+. Therefore, NAD+ is considered “likely to be safe.”
More side effects may be expected at higher doses, such as liver injury in susceptible people, headaches, skin flushing, and dizziness.
There are several lifestyle changes you can take to increase NAD+, including:
NAD+ is considered “likely to be safe.” With that said, any medication has the potential to cause side effects in susceptible people. Potential side effects of NAD+ include:
Foods that are high in antioxidants and niacin increase NAD+ levels. Consume more of the following foods:
Vitamin B3 is a precursor for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). There are several ways that your body makes NAD. One way is from the essential amino acid tryptophan. This process requires vitamin B3.
High levels of NAD+ are needed for exercise, and exercise stimulates the production of NAD+.
NAD+ is essential for producing cellular energy. During periods of strenuous or prolonged exercise, there is increased demand for energy. NAD is needed to produce glucose in the liver and break down fats for energy.
NAD+ is also a signaling molecule that tells DNA to increase transcription and translation to produce more proteins than the cells need to produce energy.
NAD+ is also needed in the muscle to reduce the oxidative stress incurred from increased metabolism.