The Pros And Cons Of Testosterone Therapy Methods

March 25, 2024

Most people consider testosterone therapy because they have a medical condition in which their body is not producing enough testosterone or they are experiencing age-related declines in testosterone. Low testosterone, also called symptomatic hypogonadism, means that your testosterone levels are low enough that they are causing symptoms such as:

  • Decreased sex drive
  • Decreased energy levels
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Mood changes
  • Swollen or tender breasts
  • Sleep problems
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Muscle loss
  • Increased fat, especially abdominal fat

If you have talked to your doctor about the symptoms you are experiencing and they are consistent with low testosterone, the next step is to check your testosterone levels.

If your lab work indicates that you have low testosterone and that you would benefit from testosterone therapy, the next step is determining a delivery method. Each of these methods has pros and cons. Like all medications and supplements, there are problems associated with testosterone therapy. Discuss the risks and benefits of testosterone replacement therapy with your doctor to maximize your benefits and minimize the risks.


Testosterone injections have been a standard method of treatment for decades. Testosterone injections come as testosterone cypionate (Depo-Testosterone), testosterone enanthate (Xyostad), and testosterone undecanoate (Aveed).

Testosterone enanthate can be injected subcutaneously (just under the skin). There is a convenient testosterone enanthate auto-injector that was approved in October 2018. Testosterone cypionate is a synthetic derivative of testosterone in the form of an oil-soluble ester. Compared to other forms of testosterone, it has a slow release rate after injection and a longer half-life.

The Pros And Cons Of Testosterone Therapy Methods


Testosterone injections can be administered at home using a home injection kit. They are typically given weekly, though it is important to follow your doctor’s prescribing instructions. The needle for injection is small, and typically, the medication is injected just under the skin.

Testosterone injections can provide a consistently stable testosterone level without the mess associated with creams or gels or the pain associated with injecting testosterone pellets.


If the injection site is not sterilized prior to injection, there is a risk of infection, redness, or swelling.

Buccal Testosterone

Buccal testosterone is a putty-like substance that comes in a tablet-shaped pouch. It is applied to the crevice between the upper lip and gum, where it is absorbed across the mucosa of the mouth. The patches are applied, alternating between just above the right and left incisors. The patches must be applied to the upper gum, not the lower gum, every 12 hours or so.


You can chew gum, smoke, brush your teeth, and drink liquids with the patch in place. However, these activities may affect medication absorption. The patches are easy to use and unobtrusive.


The patch can easily be dislodged and should never be chewed or swallowed. Since there are only two application sites, your gums can easily become irritated.

Testosterone in buccal form can cause the following side effects:

  • irritation, redness, pain, tenderness, swelling, toughening, or blistering of gums
  • swollen or tender lips
  • unpleasant or bitter taste in the mouth
  • impaired ability to taste foods


Subcutaneous pellets are small, pill-like pellets that are injected right under the skin via a minor procedure in your doctor’s office. Testopel is an example of an implantable pellet.


Testosterone pellets are implanted and last several months, generally three to six months. The ease of use makes testosterone pellets a good option for some men.

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The pellets must be implanted in your doctor’s office, and there is the potential for the pellet to work its way out through the skin. Since the pellets are injected, the dosage cannot easily be adjusted. In addition, implanting testosterone pellets causes a break in the skin, so there is the risk of infection or scarring.


Testosterone patches are applied directly to the skin. They should be applied as soon as the pouch is opened, typically at the same time each night. The ideal time for applying a testosterone patch is between 8:00 p.m. and midnight. Each patch is left in place for 24 hours. Unless directed otherwise by your doctor, only one patch should be applied each day.


Testosterone patches tend to be easier to apply than testosterone gels and decrease the risk of accidental transfer of testosterone to women or children.


Testosterone patches should not be applied to oily or hairy skin, areas of increased perspiration, over a bone, or places where pressure is applied when sitting or lying down. You need to choose a different spot each night for the application, and the same spot cannot be reused for a minimum of seven days.

Side effects from testosterone patches may include:

  • burn-like blisters, redness, pain, or itching at the application site


Testosterone gels are directly absorbed through the skin. Where the gel is applied depends on the brand. For example, AndroGel, Testim, and Vogelxo are applied to the upper arm or shoulder. Fortesta is applied to the front or inner thigh.

Testosterone gels are usually applied once daily in the morning to clean, dry skin. It is important to cover the application site as soon as the gel has dried to prevent accidental transfer.


Testosterone gels are easy to apply and allow for a steady release of testosterone. There is no need for needles or training to give injections. The gel dries quickly and could easily become part of your daily routine.


Testosterone gels should not be applied directly to the penis or scrotum or to any skin surface that is cracked or covered with a rash. Gels may be messy to apply and irritate the skin.

Testosterone gels carry a black box warning that accidental transfer of testosterone gel to women or children can cause serious health problems. Bed linens and towels may also have testosterone gel on them.

Side effects specific to testosterone gels include:

  • watery eyes
  • headaches
  • dry or itchy skin
  • diarrhea
  • skin redness or irritation
The Pros And Cons Of Testosterone Therapy Methods

Nasal Gels

Natasto is a nasal gel that was approved in 2014. It is rapidly absorbed from the inside lining of the nose. It is typically applied every six to eight hours or as directed by your doctor.


Natasto is easy to self-administer and does not have the risk of transfer to women and children that skin-applied gels might have. The nasal gel adheres to the lining of the nose and should not cause a runny nose or drainage.


The nasal gel may be difficult for some people to administer. If you have a cold or nasal congestion, you may need to contact your doctor for instructions on administering the medication.

Testosterone nasal gels may cause the following side effects:

  • headache
  • cough
  • sinus pain
  • change in sense of smell
Telehealth visit discussing testosterone therapy

Other Things To Consider About Testosterone Therapy

In addition to these options, an oral pill form of testosterone undecanoate is available. This medication comes with a black box warning that it may cause high blood pressure. It has only been approved for men with low testosterone secondary to a medical condition and not age-related. According to the FDA, the high blood pressure risk outweighs the benefits of treating age-related low T.

There are many options for administering testosterone. If you have symptoms of low testosterone, make an appointment with one of the medical specialists at Invigor Medical. They will evaluate your personal history and lab work and determine whether you are a candidate for testosterone replacement therapy.

While undergoing testosterone replacement therapy, it is essential to follow up with your doctor regularly for lab work and monitor any side effects you might be experiencing.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the best method of testosterone therapy?

The best method of testosterone therapy depends on individual factors such as preference, medical history, and lifestyle. Options include injections, gels, patches, pellets, and oral formulations.

What are the different types of testosterone treatments?

Different types of testosterone treatments include testosterone injections (such as testosterone cypionate and testosterone enanthate), transdermal patches, gels and creams, buccal tablets, and testosterone pellets.

Which form of testosterone is most effective?

The effectiveness of testosterone therapy depends on various factors, including the individual’s physiology, adherence to treatment, and dosage. Injectable forms of testosterone, such as testosterone cypionate and testosterone enanthate, are often considered highly effective.

What is the new TRT replacement?

There are ongoing developments in testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), including the exploration of new formulations, delivery methods, and treatment protocols. It’s essential to consult with a healthcare provider for the most up-to-date information on TRT options.

Author: Leann Poston, M.D.
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