The Proper NAD+ Injection Dosage
NAD+ and NADH are two forms of the coenzyme: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). NAD+ supports over half of all biological processes. Low NAD+ levels are associated with age-related physical disability and disease.1
NAD+ depletion is detected in major neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, cardiovascular disease, and muscle atrophy.2 NAD+ deficiency has been identified in the skin, muscle, and brain tissue.3 NAD+ supplementation can improve energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity, as well as protect against neurodegeneration and improve cognitive function.4,5
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The Research Behind NAD+ Supplementation
The NAD+ salvage pathway using NAD+ precursors is the primary way NAD+ is supplemented. Both nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), two forms of water-soluble vitamin B3, have been studied as supplements to treat disease in humans. Research suggests that either NR or NMN supplementation could increase cellular NAD+ levels in a dose-dependent manner.6-8 A quick search on ClinicalTrials.gov yields over 1,000 clinical trials investigating the role of NAD+ in preventing and treating disease. Researchers are studying the many potential health benefits possible with NAD+ supplementation.
” NMN could open up a new horizon in modern therapeutics.”Poddar et al. (2019)
NMN has shown promise in treating1,8-10
- Muscular weakness
- Heart failure
- Alzheimer’s disease
- Blood vessel disease
- Age-related cognitive impairment
- Eye disease
- Acute kidney injury
- Alcoholic liver disease
NMN supplementation improves physical activity, energy expenditure, and neuronal (brain cell) function in a dose-dependent manner by increasing NAD+ and SIRT signaling.11,12 Exercise improves aerobic capacity, cardiovascular health, metabolic health, and physical function. Many of these benefits may be NAD+/sirtuin-related. Exercise increases the expression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme in the NAD+ salvage pathway, as well as NAD+ levels and sirtuin activity.13,14 When comparing NAD+ levels in middle-aged and college adults before and after ten weeks of training, Lamb et al. (2020) found that resistance exercise14
- increased strength and localized muscle hypertrophy
- robustly increased muscle NAD+ and NADH concentrations
- modestly (but significantly) increased NAMPT protein levels and global SIRT activity
- robustly increased citrate synthase activity levels in muscle, suggesting mitochondrial biogenesis occurred.
In another study, researchers compared aerobic capacity in middle-aged and young recreationally trained runners taking various doses of NMN. The four groups in the study included:
- the low dosage group (300 mg/day NMN)
- the medium dosage group (600 mg/day NMN)
- the high dosage group (1200 mg/day NMN)
- and the control group (placebo)
The results suggested that NMN increased the aerobic capacity of humans during exercise training in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is likely due to enhanced oxygen utilization.15
Results reported from an animal study suggested that using an 18-day series of NMN injections or nine weeks of exercise had similar benefits for reversing metabolic dysfunction and showed that NMN had stronger effects on liver fat metabolism than did exercise.15
How Much NAD+ Do You Inject?
The amount of NAD+ that is injected will depend on the specific treatment being used and the individual needs of the patient. NAD+ is being studied as a potential treatment for various conditions, including addiction, depression, and age-related cognitive decline.
In general, NAD+ is administered through intravenous (IV) infusions, in which NAD+ is injected into a vein using a needle. The typical dosage of NAD+ used in clinical studies ranges from 100 to 300 mg per day, given as one or more infusions over a period of several days.15
Can NAD Be Injected Subcutaneously?
Subcutaneous injection, which is the injection of a substance just under the skin, is an alternative method of administering NAD. Subcutaneous NAD+ injections require a prescription. The injections are self-administered and are similar to insulin injections. The dosage range varies but is typically between 20 mg and 100 mg NAD+.
Can NAD+ Be Injected IM?
Intramuscular (IM) injection, which is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle, is not a common method of administering NAD+. Limited information is available on the safety and effectiveness of NAD+ intramuscular injections.
How Long Does A NAD Injection Last?
The duration of a NAD injection will depend on the specific treatment used and the patient’s individual needs. NAD is being studied as a potential treatment for a variety of conditions, including addiction, depression, and age-related cognitive decline. Experts have not yet worked out how each of the NAD precursors acts in human body tissues because the pathways used to make NAD+ vary by cell type, which makes it difficult to determine an effective dose or recommended treatment length.
It is important to note that NAD is still being studied as a potential treatment for various conditions, and it has not yet been approved by regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a treatment. Therefore, it is important to consult with a qualified healthcare professional before considering NAD therapy and to follow the recommended treatment regimen. Invigor Medical’s treatment specialist can help you determine whether NAD+ supplementation is right for you. NAD+ requires a prescription for a subcutaneous injection. Your Invigor Medical healthcare provider will determine your dosage during your consultation.
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- Johnson S, Imai SI. NAD (+) biosynthesis, aging, and disease. F1000Res. 2018;7:132. doi:10.12688/f1000research.12120.1
- Fang EF, Lautrup S, Hou Y, et al. NAD(+) in Aging: Molecular Mechanisms and Translational Implications. Trends Mol Med. Oct 2017;23(10):899-916. doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2017.08.001
- Braidy N, Liu Y. Can nicotinamide riboside protect against cognitive impairment? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. Nov 2020;23(6):413-420. doi:10.1097/mco.0000000000000691
- Yoshino M, Yoshino J, Kayser BD, et al. Nicotinamide mononucleotide increases muscle insulin sensitivity in prediabetic women. Science. 2021;372(6547):1224-1229. doi:10.1126/science.abe9985
- Trammell SAJ, Schmidt MS, Weidemann BJ, et al. Nicotinamide riboside is uniquely and orally bioavailable in mice and humans. Nature Communications. 2016/10/10 2016;7(1):12948. doi:10.1038/ncomms12948
- Hong W, Mo F, Zhang Z, Huang M, Wei X. Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: A Promising Molecule for Therapy of Diverse Diseases by Targeting NAD+ Metabolism. Review. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. 2020-April-28 2020;8doi:10.3389/fcell.2020.00246
- Poddar SK, Sifat AE, Haque S, Nahid NA, Chowdhury S, Mehedi I. Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: Exploration of Diverse Therapeutic Applications of a Potential Molecule. Biomolecules. 2019;9(1):34.
- Mehmel M, Jovanović N, Spitz U. Nicotinamide Riboside-The Current State of Research and Therapeutic Uses. Nutrients. May 31 2020;12(6)doi:10.3390/nu12061616
- Mills KF, Yoshida S, Stein LR, et al. Long-Term Administration of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Mitigates Age-Associated Physiological Decline in Mice. Cell Metabolism. 2016;24(6):795-806. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2016.09.013
- Lamb DA, Moore JH, Mesquita PHC, et al. Resistance training increases muscle NAD+ and NADH concentrations as well as NAMPT protein levels and global sirtuin activity in middle-aged, overweight, untrained individuals. Aging. 2020;12(10):9447-9460. doi:10.18632/aging.103218
- Liao B, Zhao Y, Wang D, Zhang X, Hao X, Hu M. Nicotinamide mononucleotide supplementation enhances aerobic capacity in amateur runners: a randomized, double-blind study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Jul 8 2021;18(1):54. doi:10.1186/s12970-021-00442-4