Can Your Skeleton Shrink As A Result Of Weight Loss?
While your bones don’t shrink when you lose weight, they can lose density, which is a significant health concern. Weight loss affects bone density, causing bones to be thinner and lighter, increasing your risk for bone fractures.
The global prevalence of obesity has nearly doubled since the 1980s. Obesity increases the risk of developing chronic medical conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Restricting calories can support weight loss efforts, but it is important to protect your bones while losing those excess pounds. Combining a healthy diet with exercise is the best way to protect your bones.
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Bones are made up of living cells, collagen fibers, and salt crystals. Bone cells are constantly building bone (osteoblasts), breaking it down (osteoclast), and maintaining it (osteocyte). Salt crystals form when calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate combine to form hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite incorporates other minerals and crystallizes on collagen fibers. Hydroxyapatite crystals give bone its strength, and collagen fibers provide flexibility.
Body weight is a strong determinant of bone density. A study of women who met the criteria for overweight or obesity and lost 5% or more of their body weight over six years found a 2.5 times higher risk of hip fractures than women who maintained or gained weight. Weight loss between middle and older age increases the risk of hip fractures.
In another study, men and women were assigned to one of four low-calorie diets. The diets had varying proportions of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Total calories consumed were the same in all four groups. Postmenopausal women had a small decrease in spine and hip bone density. Premenopausal women had a small decrease in hip bone density, while men had a slight increase in bone density. Women who lost more abdominal fat had greater decreases in bone density.
Weight alone is not the reason bones have increased density. When researchers compared the skeletons of people with obesity to people at a healthy weight, their bones were not stronger relative to the weight they carried. Obesity is also associated with an increased risk of arm and leg bone fractures.
How Does Weight Loss Cause Bones To Shrink?
Bone responds to the stresses put upon it. When you exercise, you stress your bones, and they respond by increasing bone density. If you consume a restricted diet, your bones may not get the nutrients they need, which can further compromise bone density.
Who Is At Greater Risk Of Losing Bone Mass Due To Weight Loss?
Many variables affect bone density. However, some populations seem to be at greater risk:
- Postmenopausal women: Estrogen is bone-protective. Decreasing estrogen levels post-menopause increases the risk of bone fractures.
- Inactivity: Engaging in activities like running and walking stresses bones and increases bone density.
- Smoking: Smoking is associated with decreased bone density.
- Poor Diet: Consuming a diet low in calcium and vitamins A, D, and C means that bone tissue may not have the building blocks it needs to maintain or build bone.
- Medical conditions: Some medical conditions affect the calcium and phosphorus balance in the body and can increase the risk of decreased bone density.
- Excessive alcohol intake: Alcohol can interfere with calcium and vitamin D absorption, affecting bone density. Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with decreased testosterone levels. Testosterone helps maintain bone and muscle tissue.
- Older age: The older you are, the higher your risk for fractures from decreased bone density.
- Family history: Having a family history of osteoporosis can increase your risk.
Parts Of The Skeleton That Are Most Likely To Be Affected
Any part of the skeleton can be affected by decreased bone density (osteoporosis). However, the bones most likely to sustain fractures as a result of decreased bone density include:
Health Problems Related To The Loss Of Bone Mass
The endocrine system produces hormones that regulate mineral levels in the body. Changes in some hormone levels are associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis.
- Sex hormones: Decreased estrogen after menopause and decreased testosterone levels associated with aging can impact bone density.
- Thyroid hormone: Increased thyroid hormone can cause bone loss.
- Parathyroid hormone: Overactive parathyroid glands cause too much calcium to be released from the bones, causing decreased bone density.
Signs Of Loss Of Bone Mass
There are no signs or symptoms of osteoporosis in the early stages of bone loss. It is only after you sustain a fracture or have a bone density screening test that it is identified.
How To Prevent Bone Shrinkage Related To Weight Loss
The best ways to prevent bone loss, whether secondary to weight loss or another cause, are to:
- Consume a balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D
- Engage in weight-bearing exercise regularly
- Maintain a healthy weight
- Lose weight slowly and do resistance exercise
- Avoid crash-dieting
- Have your hormone levels checked?
How To Address Bone Shrinkage Related To Weight Loss
Talk to your doctor if you are concerned that you may have decreased bone density after losing weight. There are no signs or symptoms associated with decreased bone density until you have a fracture. Eat a healthy diet and engage in weight-bearing exercises, such as walking, running, and jogging.
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