What Causes A Lack Of Energy And How Do You Increase It?

November 30, 2023
Two people running in the winter

A lack of energy and motivation has many causes and consequences. Sometimes it even becomes a vicious cycle. Low energy and motivation may cause you to feel lazy and out-of-sorts, which certainly provides no motivation to make a change. 

Having no energy is debilitating. Lack of energy and motivation leads some people to turn to unhealthy health habits such as alcohol or drug use. About 6.6% of U.S. adults (16 million people) are using prescription stimulants, and about 5 million of them are misusing these powerful medications. In most cases (78%), their motivation was to be more alert or concentrate better.1

Physical and psychological causes of low energy are challenging to diagnose because the symptoms are so non-specific, there aren’t many great biomarkers to point to a diagnosis, and the list of possible diagnoses feels endless. Knowing more about the common causes of prolonged fatigue can help you work with your doctor to get a more accurate diagnosis.

Everyone goes through periods of low energy. If you are in one now, give yourself a break. You may just need some rest. However, prolonged mental and physical fatigue can signify physical or psychological health issues and lead to relationship problems. The sooner you better understand why you lack energy and motivation, the quicker you can turn your life around.

Common Reasons For A Decline In Energy And Motivation

Stress, psychological or emotional conditions, and physical illness can all cause low energy and motivation. To better understand your lack of energy, look for associated patterns and symptoms. Does it occur only after exercise, late in the day, during the workweek, or after dealing with certain people or tasks? Do you notice physical symptoms such as shortness of breath, inability to exercise at a previously attainable level, poor sleep quality, fevers, gastrointestinal symptoms, changes in appetite, or infectious symptoms? 

As you take inventory of your symptoms and patterns of fatigue, consider some of these common causes of low energy. 

Prolonged Feelings Of Burnout 

Burnout at work is a result of chronic stress that is not well managed. Physical and psychological symptoms are both common, leading to decreased job satisfaction and productivity. 2 Occasional burn-out is not uncommon, but if it leads to chronically low energy and motivation, it’s time to take a hard look at your current job and whether it’s time to make some changes. The line between burnout and depression is very thin.3 

Do the demands of your workplace consistently exceed the physical and mental energy you have to give? Is it because of excessive demands from your employer or boredom and lack of engagement on your end? Many of us feel like we are on-call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Workplace changes instituted in the pandemic, including working from home and blurring the boundaries between work and home, have only worsened the problem. If you have no downtime to recharge and get away from work stress, it’s no wonder you are feeling burned out. 

Other causes of burnout include an inability to meet unrealistic work expectations; having little autonomy or decision-making authority; a lack of guidance or support; unfair or unequal treatment; and a feeling of isolation. Conflict, especially when poorly managed, can negatively affect your health and well-being.4

Burnout can cause exhaustion, fatigue, depression, and pessimism about your current work situation and the future. Burnout causes stress and anxiety that can affect your physical and mental health and the quality of your relationships. Diagnosing burnout is not easy. Consider whether the stress, depression, and anxiety you may be experiencing stem from your workplace environment.

a man daydreaming

Relationship Troubles

Relationship troubles are definitely a cause of chronic stress. Unsupportive, poorly matched, and demanding romantic, personal, professional, or familial relationships can be mentally and physically draining. 

New romantic relationships are typically exciting and a bit overwhelming as partners explore each other to learn whether they are a good match. When the relationship is going well, it can be a source of motivation and energy, but when it is not, it can be draining and cause relationship burnout. Relationships and intimacy affect mental health and motivation. Likewise, motivation and mental health affect the quality of your relationships. 

When partners enter into a romantic relationship, they have expectations for each other. When these expectations are not met, the relationship suffers. Depression, fatigue, and anxiety are common causes of erectile dysfunction and other sexual health problems. Supporting a partner with erectile dysfunction or decreased libido can be challenging.

Decline In Mental Health 

Mental health conditions such as chronic depression, mood disorders, stress, or anxiety can cause low energy, and low energy can worsen these conditions. Lack of quality sleep also worsens symptoms of mental health conditions and further contributes to low energy. Mental stress and exhaustion can manifest as physical exhaustion and fatigue. The inverse is also true. Hormonal changes and medical conditions, especially those that cause pain or stress, can also cause mental fatigue or brain fog. 

Mental illness can manifest with a wide array of symptoms. These symptoms can affect each person differently. If you have any concerns about your mental health, it is important to talk with your doctor. Your fatigue and lack of motivation are unlikely to improve until your mental health condition is treated. 

The inability to focus, brain fog, and stress affect millions of otherwise healthy adults. Learn more about cognitive health and how brain health and mental health intersect.

two women talking


Many people use the terms “illness” and “disease” synonymously, but they are slightly different. Diseases cause symptoms and signs that are due to underlying changes in physiology. They can be caused by an infection, a lack of a nutrient, a genetic trait, or a change in the amount or function of an enzyme or hormone. They are what a doctor diagnoses. 

An illness is feeling poorly, whether it is physically, mentally, or even socially. Illnesses describe what the patient feels. Either can cause fatigue and a lack of motivation.5 Since an illness describes any symptom that a person feels or a condition that they are concerned they may have, the list of possible illnesses causing fatigue depends on the person experiencing the symptoms. 

A sample of diseases that may cause fatigue: 

  • Infections of any type
  • Anemia
  • Diabetes
  • Abnormal adrenal function
  • Thyroid disease
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Allergies
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Heart disease
  • Obesity
  • Lung diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) or chronic bronchitis
  • Cancer and cancer treatment
  • Medication side effects
What Causes A Lack Of Energy And How Do You Increase It?

Poor Consumption Habits 

Poor consumption habits describe a wide variety of lifestyle choices that can cause illness or disease. 

  • Diet: Poor diet can cause fatigue and lack of motivation. Poor diet includes a lack of nutrients, too few calories, or too many calories. Dieting can cause mood swings which can cause fatigue and lack of motivation. 
  • Smoking: Smoking causes cancer, lung infections, lung disease, gastrointestinal symptoms, and changes in mental health. Smoking and nicotine can also cause impotence, which can lead to relationship problems, stress, and illness. 
  • Marijuana: While the research on marijuana and whether it can cause ED, loss of libido, decreases in testosterone levels, and other conditions is less clear than with smoking, it is important to consider whether marijuana is a contributor to feelings of fatigue or lack of motivation. 
  • Technology: Scrolling mindlessly through social media and watching television for hours on end can also cause fatigue and low energy. Whether it is information overload or an inability to pull yourself away to do daily tasks, technology can gradually encroach on your time and drain your energy. 
  • Hydration: About 60% of your body weight is water. Every chemical reaction n the body must take place in a watery environment. A lack of hydration can negatively affect your metabolism and cause fatigue.

Less Physical Activity 

All forms of physical exercise can improve your health and energy levels, including:

  • Aerobic exercise: Improves heart and lung function. Better heart and lung function mean more oxygen for cells in your body and more efficient metabolism. 
  • Strength exercise: Lifting weights or even bodyweight exercises improve your muscle strength and efficiency. You can accomplish your daily tasks with less energy. 
  • Balance exercises: improving balance reduces your risk of falls and injuries. 
  • Stretching exercises: stretching first thing in the morning, before bed, and after exercise are good practices to prevent injuries and keep your muscles and joints flexible. 

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has published physical activity guidelines for all age groups. Adults should try to get 150 minutes to 300 minutes of aerobic exercise per week and two strength-building sessions per week.

women exercising

How To Increase Energy And Restore Motivation

Strategies to increase energy and restore motivation depend on the cause, but try some of these: 

  • Take short breaks during the workday to get some exercise.
  • Eat lunch away from your desk.
  • If you work at home, close your office at the end of the day and stay away from it until the next workday. 
  • Set limits on technology. When will you check social media and emails? 
  • Plan for the weekend. Put as much thought into your time off as you do into your workday. Make sure you have interesting things to do that give you energy and are enjoyable. 
  • Use your vacation and time off. 
  • Inventory your job to see if it is a good match for your current point in your career. If it comes up lacking, can you make changes with your current employer, or is it time to look for a new job? 
  • Make exercise a regular part of your schedule. Consider supplements that may support muscle function and performance and hasten your fitness gains. 
  • Make sure you are getting adequate sleep and practicing good sleep habits. 
  • Identify and manage stressors. 
  • If a nutrient deficiency is contributing to low energy, consider talking to a health professional to learn more about supplements that may increase your energy

If you have low energy and motivation, take an inventory of your lifestyle practices. Write down any symptoms you may be experiencing and what you have tried to improve your symptoms. If you are concerned that a disease may be causing your low energy, talk to your doctor. Once you improve your energy levels and motivation, it is essential to keep working on prioritizing your health and healthy lifestyle habits so you can feel and perform at your best. 

Author: Leann Poston, M.D.
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